Geographical position : The city is located on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is located at 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.85°E / 21.033; 105.85Coordinates: 21°2′N 105°51′E / 21.033°N 105.85°E / 21.033; 105.85, 1760 km (1094 mi) north of Ho Chi Minh City, formerly called Saigon.
On May 29 2008, it was decided that Ha Tay province, Vinh Phuc’s Me Linh district and 4 communes of Luong Son district, Hoa Binh is merged into the metropolitan area of Hanoi from August 1 2008. Hanoi’s total area increased to 334,470 hectares divided into 29 subdivisions with the new population being 6,232,940. The Hanoi Capital Region (Vietnamese: Vùng Thủ Đô Hà Nội), a metropolitan area covering Hanoi and 6 surrounding provinces under planning will have an area of 13,436 square kilometers with a population of 15 million by 2020. October 2010 will officially mark 1000 years of the establishment of the city.
Area: 14,862.5 km2
Sectors development plan:
+ Services: It is planned to reach the average rate of 8.5-9.5% for the period 2006-2010. Priorities will be given to developing high quality service, service connecting with industry-agriculture, serving people’s healthy physical and spiritual demand, especially tourism, finance-banking, trade, etc.
+ Agriculture-Forestry-Fishery: It is planned to reach the average rate of 3% for the period 2006-2010 with higher quality agricultural products, modernization of agriculture, urbanization in rural areas, development of agriculture in connection with economic development to form urban agriculture in which priorities will be given to changes in production structure to create more economically valuable products, biological technology development, etc.
+ Industry: It is planned to reach the average rate of 10-11% for the period 2006 to 2010 with priorities given to developing centered , small, medium scaled industrial zones; promoting goods, products of high intellectual technology; Improving environmental pollutions caused by enterprises (changing their productions or moving them to sparsely populated regions); expanding old suburban industrial zones provided that they have enough land for expansion and the expansion go in line with general planning of the region; further developing key industries such as engineering, electronics-computering, textile, footwear, food processing, ect.; encouraging labour intensive industries.
General plans for Hanoi, the Capital City
1. Scope of plan and direction of urban development
The structure of this spatial plan includes Hanoi at the center with the surrounding urban environs of Ha Tay, Bac Ninh and Hung Yen provinces, all within a radius of 30km to 50km.
Based on long-term plans, Hanoi city will be primarily developed towards the west, creating the Mieu Mon- Hoa Lac- Son Tay (Ha Tay province) urban corridor; in addition growth is planned in the north, including Soc Son (Hanoi)- Xuan Hoa- Dai Lai- Phuc Yen (Vinh Phuc province) and other urban areas, taking advantage of natural and geographical conditions, transport networks and infrastructure. It is foreseen, that Hanoi’s center will be expanded in Northwestern, Southwestern and Northerly directions with prerequisite development of areas north of the Red River. A new urban center will be developed in these northern areas that includes North Thang Long- Van Tri, Dong Anh- Co Loa, Gia Lam- Sai Dong- and Yen Vien with development of South Thang Long.
2. Population size:
By the year 2020, the population of Hanoi and surrounding urban areas will reach the range of 4.5-5 million people, with adjustments possible based on research and plans; of this the City’s urban center will be 2.5 million people.
3. Spatial and architectural plans
a/ Land use targets
Urban population density targets set for an average of 100m2/person that includes space for transport networks of 25m2/person, 18m2/person for green space, parks and sporting facilities, and 5m2/person for public services.
b/ Division based on function
– The residential population of areas set for limited development, enclosed within the second ring of Vinh Tuy- Nga Tu Vong- Nga Tu So- Cau Giay- Nhat Tan will be controlled at approximately 0.8 million people; growth is planned mainly outside of this ring, on the South of the Red River a population of 0.7 million people is expected, on the North of the Red River the population will reach one million people.
– Existing industrial zones will be renovated and organized in fitting with the City’s construction plans; new industrial zones as Soc Son, North Thang Long, South Thang Long, Sai Dong A and B, and Dong Anh will be developed; improvements and expansion will be made for the industrial zones of Cau Dien, Cau Buou, Phap Van, and Duc Giang. In addition, small, non-polluting and advanced technology producers can be developed adjacent to residential areas. The total area for industrial zones is about 3,000ha.
– Public spaces include the existing Ba Dinh national administrative and political center, the City’s administrative and political center in the Hoan Kiem Lake area and new centers for trade, finance, services and cultural activities in West Lake, South Thang Long (Xuan la, Xuan Dinh, Nghia Do), Phuong Trach (South Van Tri), Gia Lam in addition to the Co Loa center for services, culture and sports.
Supporting this is a system of district and regional centers connect closely with work units or residential areas.
– Special planning spaces include:
+ Governmental offices of all administrative levels are located throughout administrative centers of the City, in districts and quarters. Companies, organizations and foreign representative offices are generally located along main roadways.
+ Educational and training facilities are concentrated on larger avenues as Giai Phong Avenue, Nguyen Trai Avenue, Roadway No. 32, Trau Quy, Me Tri and other locations.
+ Scientific research institutes are primarily concentrated in older inner city districts and the Nghia Do area, including existing offices and institutes and newly renovated facilities, and science and research parks.
+ Medical care centers include general and specialized hospitals located in the areas of Bach Mai, Tran Khanh Du, Trang Thi, Quan Su, Xuan La- Nhat Tan, Van Tri and other locations.
New specialized hospitals will be exclusively constructed in the districts of Gia Lam, Soc Son and other locations.
+ National and municipal sporting centers are located at My Dinh (Tu Liem district). Others are evenly placed throughout the city such as in Hang Day, Quan Ngua, Nhon, Van Tri, Co Loa, and Trieu Khuc.
+ Improvements are planned for green spaces, parks, and flower gardens together with developing green spaces near Yen So Lake, Linh Dam, Trieu Khuc, Me Tri, Nhue River, Phu Thuong, Van Tri, Co Loa, Gia Lam, and Sai Dong. The creation of newly planted rows of trees and shrubbery for ecological protection of landscapes between the banks of the rivers of To Lich, Lu, Set, Kim Nguu, Hong, Nhue, Ca Lo and Duong and infrastructure.
A green belt will be created with a width of 1-4km for natural and ecological preservation. XXX
– Plan and properly place the present and newly built bases of national defense and security, and ensure their construction and land management according to the plan and legal provisions on land.
c/ Urban architecture and landscape.
– In present streets: maintain and improve the historical and cultural vestiges, natural landscapes and sites with valuable architectures; construct some statutes of the National Heroes; upgrade infrastructure, improve the conditions of housing, work and transportation, make more entertainment areas for the people; preserve the historical streets, as well as improve the sites serving public benefits; limit the height of new buildings in the historical streets and locate the high buildings only in proper positions.
– In new developing areas: includes new built areas and villages, which are preserved, improved and constructed in the direction of not only modern but national specific with full infrastructure, many flower gardens, parks and greens in order to create the city’s nice, clean and green ecological environment; give attention to rise the average height, exploit the underground and air space aiming to practice land.
4. Land of transportation and technological infrastructure.
a/ Plan of transportation.
– General principle:
+ The transportation infrastructure must be prior to develop as well as other technological infrastructures in order to create a complete structure of city’s plan to effectively serve the Capital’s socio- economic activities.
+ Land for construction of transportation infrastructure, including moved and unmoved transportation systems, must gain the average percentage of 25% of urban land.
+ In development of the Capital’s transportation, the transportation for passenger must be an important one ensuring the percentage of passenger transportation of 30% up to the year 2010 and 50% of total of passengers up to 2020.
– By land:
+ Improve and expand the highways to the city: Highways named No1, No 2, No 3, No 5, No 6, No 18 and No 32. Construct completely Lang- Hoa Lac highway.
+ Completion of the construction the City’s first, second and third ring roads in addition to assessing the feasibility for a fourth ring road;
+ Improvements are to be made to existing roadways in the city, with special attention to upgrading transportation corridors and junctions of: the Tay Son roadway connection to the Nga Tu So junction; Le Duan Avenue with the Nga Tu Vong junction; La Thanh roadway with Kim Lien junction, the O Cho Dua and Cau Giay junctions; Bach Mai- Dai La roadways with the Nga Tu Trung Hien junction; Hoang Hoa Tham and Thuy Khe roadways with Nga Tu Buoi junction; the roadways of Lang Trung- Nguyen Chi Thanh- Lieu Giai and Hoang Hoa Tham; at the same time, improvements are to be made to the historical and old streets.
Increase the number of roads in areas that currently have low transport coverage.
+ Complete construction and modernization of transport networks linking them with underground infrastructure facilities in the newly developed areas.
+ Attach special importance to establishing networks of vehicle parking facilities and public transport stations, ensuring an average distance of 500- 600m from functional spaces to public transport stops. Inter-provincial vehicle parking facilities as: Gia Lam, Giap Bat, Mai Dich and Dong Anh are to be constructed.
+ In addition to Thang Long and Chuong Duong bridges, reconstruction is to be done on the Long Bien bridge, with new construction of the Thanh Tri bridge in order to meet developmental demands in both areas of the Capital south and northern of the Red River.
– For railway transport
+ For national railways: maintain the existing railway system in the western section of the City while newly constructing a Van Dien- Co Bi rail line, over the Thanh Tri Bridge and crossing the Duong River at the Bot Vang water pumping station, and connecting with the Bac Hong rail station, bypassing the Co Loa vestige site.
Complete construction of a system of railway stations including Phu Dien, Ha Dong, Viet Hung, Giap Bat, Gia Lam, Yen Vien, Bac Hong, Van Tri and Co Loa; of which Co Bi, Yen Vien, Viet Hung and Bac Hong are to be used for cargo and Giap Bat, Gia Lam and Phu Dien for passenger trains.
+ Priority should be placed on construction a public passenger urban railway network for the Capital, with both elevated and underground lines. Construction of the Van Dien- Hang Co- Gia Lam- Yen Vien line should be first, followed by the Ha Dong- Nga Tu So- Hang Co, Hang Co- Cat Linh- Kim Ma- Thu Le- Nghia Do- Phu Dien- Minh Khai, Giap Bat- along the third City ring, and the Thang Long bridge- Noi Bai and Kim Ma- Lang Trung- Hoa Lac lines.
+ Special importance should be given for construction of modern and key passenger transport links with high passenger volumes as Hang Co station and and Noi Bai airport stations.
– For air transport
Expansion and construction of the Noi Bai airport, based on plans approved by The Prime Minister in Decision No 152/TTg of April 4, 1994 should be completed. Gia Lam, Bach Mai and Hoa Lac airports will serve domestic routes. In the future, construction of a new international airport in Mieu Mon (Ha Tay province) will take place.
– For waterways:
The Red River and connecting canals should be adequately dredged; improvements should be made to the ports of Hanoi (Pha Den), Khuyen Luong as well as construction of new ports of Van Kiep and Thuong Cat.
b/ Landscape and infrastructure development
– Construction of a storm drainage system that includes pumping stations and a network of drainage canals with a coverage of 0.6-0.8km/km2.
– Improvements and new construction should be made to the existing system of regulated ponds and lakes and their surrounding landscapes that should at least have an area of 5-7% of their corresponding lakes.
– Reinforce the Red River and Day River dyke systems to improve flood protection of Hanoi’s center city.
– Construction of paths and passageways along banks of the City’s rivers and lakes, combined with the construction of embankments.
c/ Water supply.
– The targets for provision of sanitary water supply by the year 2010 is 150-180liters/person/day with 90-95% of the urban population connected to a water main; by the year 2020 this should reach 180-200liters/person/ day with 95-100% coverage.
– Proper use of underground water resources should be ensured; river water resources of the Red River, Da River, Cau River and Cong River should be exploited first.
d/ Power suppy.
– New construction is be made for three 220kv stations in Da Phuc, northwest of Van Tri pond and in Thanh Cong; the capacity of existing stations should be raised to 2,500 MVA with 16 new stations added.
– Improvements and construction is be made for powerlines with capacities of 220KV, 110KV and 22KV, ensuring a modern, aesthically pleasing and safe system.
e/ For water drainage and environmental hygiene
– Upgrade the existing combined drainage/sewerage system in the old areas of the city; with the construction of separate systems newly constructed areas.
– By the year 2020, 100% of municipal solid waste should be collected, transported and treated and disposed of with appropriate technologies.
– Improvements to and new construction of large municipal graveyards should be combined with the construction of small neighborhood graveyards fit for local conditions.
5. Initial construction plans
By the year 2005, the focus should be on plans and programs for urban management and development, including:
a/ The Program for preparation of the 1000th Anniversary of the founding of Thang Long/Hanoi.
b/ The Program for investment in construction of technological and economic centers for urban development increasing employment opportunities.
c/ The Program for investment, improvement and development of transport networks and advanced urban infrastructure.
d/ The Program for investment in environmental protection, establishing a framework for the protection of nature and a balanced urban ecology.
e/ The Program for investment and development of new urban areas, construction of housing and resettlement areas, combined with population growth control in center city districts.
g/ The Program for capacity development and effective urban management.